Intra Uterine Growth Restriction and Related Risk Factors

Background: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the morbidity and mortality of neonates, which is a major public health problem. Predictive factors such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke may adversely risk the intrauterine environment. The study aimed to estimate IUGR with various risk factors.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period from the 15th of May to the 31st of October 2019. All newborn babies with a birth weight of less than 2.5 Kg were enrolled. In addition, Ponderal index values [PI] are used as a predictor for IUGR diagnosis in a neonate.
Results: Fifty newborns were admitted, 22 were male and 28 were female. Moreover, 10 neonates were full terms and 40 preterms. AGA neonates were 6 males and 4 females, whereas IUGR were 16 males and 24 females. Most AGA cases belonged to small age groups, while neonates with IUGR were categorized as large age groups with a high statistical difference (P=0.012). NVD was the most way of delivery with 8 cases in the AGA group, and 25 cases in the IUGR group. Multigravidas reported lower in AGA cases than primigravidas cases (6 vs. 4), in addition, the same for IUGR newborns (21 vs. 19). Regarding maternal age, AGA cases are not different between women aged <18 years and >18 years. However, IUGR cases are more recorded in ages below 18 years. Maternal and DM were insignificantly
different between AGA and IUGR neonates. RDS was more reported in IUGR than AGA (27 cases vs. 7 cases). Moreover, IUGR cases with hypoglycemia were more than AGA (12 vs. 8), which was statistically significant (P=0.003). Hypothermia and jaundice are insignificantly different between AGA and IUGR.
Conclusions: Female gender is a predisposing factor to develop IUGR more than AGA. The more mature pregnancy the higher the incidence of IUGR. NVD, parity, maternal age, maternal and DM are insignificantly different between AGA and IUGR. RDS, hypothermia and jaundice are insignificantly different between AGA and IUGR. However, hypoglycemia is more liable in IUGR than AGA.

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Author: Abbas Hendi Najm Al-Mihyawi

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